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Citation Styles and Tools

AMA

AMA Manual of Style ImageAMA (American Medical Association) is most often used by medical professionals and researchers. AMA uses footnotes with corresponding numbers as the in-text citation.

Bibliography example of a citation from a journal article:

Markowitz JT, & Laffel LM. Transitions in care: support group for young adults with type1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012; 29(4): 522-525. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03537.x.

AP

AP Stylebook ImageAP (Associated Press) citation style is used by reporters, editors and others as a guide for grammar, punctuation and principles and practices of reporting. It is updated annually by the Associated Press.

Because it is used primarily in journalistic reporting, it does not have a system of in-text citations or bibliography/works cited formatting.

ASA

ASA Style Guide ImageASA (American Sociological Association) is used primarily by those publishing in ASA journals. ASA uses an author-date system of in-text citations (for example, Jones 1998).

References example of citation from a journal article:

Alba, Richard, John R. Logan, and Brian J. Stults. 2000. “The Changing Neighborhood Contexts of the Immigrant Metropolis.” Social Forces 79(2):587-621.

Forensics

Journal of Forensic Sciences ImageJournal of Forensic Sciences Citation Style is used by those in forensic science. It is very similar to CSE citation-sequence style, with some variations.

References example of citation from a journal article:

Swanson BJ, Kyle CJ. Relative influence of temporal and geographic separation of source populations in a successful marten reintroduction. J Mammal 2007 Oct;88(5):1346-8.

IEEE

IEEE LogoThe IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) style is used primarily in engineering and is based on the Chicago style (note/bibliography). The style uses footnotes and corresponding numbers for in-text citations.

 

Footnote example of citation from a journal article:

[6] W. Rafferty, “Ground antennas in NASA’s deep space telecommunications,” Proc. IEEE vol. 82, pp. 636-640, May 1994.

Turabian

Turabian Style Guide ImageTurabian style is essentially Chicago style, with slight modifications for student writers. As with Chicago there are two citation styles:

1) notes-bibliography style (bibliography style) - which uses footnotes/endnotes and a bibliography.

2) author-date style - which uses in-text citations and a references list.

Bibliography style is used in literature, history, and the arts. Author-date style is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences.